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科學認識和推進農業綠色發展

時間:2021-02-02     來源:人民日報(bao)

推進(jin)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展是農(nong)(nong)業(ye)發(fa)展觀的(de)(de)一場(chang)深刻革命(ming)。黨的(de)(de)十八大以來,以習近平同(tong)(tong)志為核(he)心的(de)(de)黨中(zhong)央(yang)作(zuo)出一系列(lie)重大決策部署,農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展實現了(le)良好開局。根據《中(zhong)國農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展報(bao)告(gao)2019》,2012—2018年全國農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展指數從73.46提升至76.12,在資(zi)源(yuan)節約與保育、生(sheng)(sheng)態環(huan)境安(an)全、綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)產(chan)品供給(gei)、生(sheng)(sheng)活富裕美好等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)得到不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)程(cheng)度改善,為生(sheng)(sheng)態文明建(jian)設(she)提供了(le)基(ji)礎支撐。同(tong)(tong)時也應(ying)看到,我國農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展不(bu)(bu)平衡不(bu)(bu)充(chong)分的(de)(de)問題依然突出,與黨中(zhong)央(yang)要求和(he)(he)人(ren)民群眾(zhong)期盼相比還有(you)很大提升空間(jian)。比如,農(nong)(nong)業(ye)主(zhu)要依靠資(zi)源(yuan)消耗的(de)(de)粗放經營方(fang)式沒有(you)根本改變(bian),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)面(mian)源(yuan)污(wu)染(ran)和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)態退(tui)化的(de)(de)趨勢(shi)(shi)尚未(wei)得到有(you)效遏制,綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)優(you)質(zhi)農(nong)(nong)產(chan)品和(he)(he)生(sheng)(sheng)態產(chan)品供給(gei)還不(bu)(bu)能滿足人(ren)民群眾(zhong)日(ri)益增長的(de)(de)需求。鞏固(gu)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展良好勢(shi)(shi)頭(tou),必須深入貫徹落實習近平生(sheng)(sheng)態文明思想,科學認(ren)識和(he)(he)推進(jin)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)發(fa)展。

科學認(ren)識農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。從(cong)歷史實(shi)(shi)(shi)踐看(kan),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)是(shi)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)優秀農(nong)(nong)耕文(wen)化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)寶貴(gui)結(jie)晶。中(zhong)華民(min)族在(zai)(zai)長期(qi)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)進(jin)程中(zhong),形成了(le)(le)趨時避(bi)害(hai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)時觀,辨土施(shi)肥、用養結(jie)合的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地力(li)觀,化害(hai)為(wei)(wei)(wei)利、變(bian)廢(fei)為(wei)(wei)(wei)寶的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)循環觀等(deng)(deng)(deng),為(wei)(wei)(wei)推(tui)動(dong)(dong)(dong)當代農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)提供(gong)了(le)(le)重(zhong)(zhong)要思(si)想(xiang)文(wen)化資源(yuan)。從(cong)現(xian)(xian)實(shi)(shi)(shi)舉(ju)措(cuo)看(kan),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)是(shi)新(xin)(xin)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)理念在(zai)(zai)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)農(nong)(nong)村(cun)領域的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)具體(ti)體(ti)現(xian)(xian)。近年來,我(wo)們深(shen)入貫(guan)徹落實(shi)(shi)(shi)習近平生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態文(wen)明(ming)思(si)想(xiang),堅持新(xin)(xin)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)理念,開展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)高(gao)(gao)標(biao)準(zhun)農(nong)(nong)田建設(she)和(he)耕地輪作(zuo)休耕試點,實(shi)(shi)(shi)施(shi)畜禽糞污資源(yuan)化利用、果菜茶有機肥替代化肥、東北地區(qu)(qu)秸稈處理、農(nong)(nong)膜回收(shou)和(he)以長江為(wei)(wei)(wei)重(zhong)(zhong)點的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)保護等(deng)(deng)(deng)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)“五(wu)大行(xing)動(dong)(dong)(dong)”,創建兩批國(guo)(guo)家(jia)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)先(xian)行(xing)區(qu)(qu)。中(zhong)央辦(ban)公廳(ting)、國(guo)(guo)務院辦(ban)公廳(ting)印發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《關于創新(xin)(xin)體(ti)制(zhi)機制(zhi)推(tui)進(jin)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)意見(jian)》,標(biao)志著我(wo)們黨對(dui)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)規(gui)律(lv)性(xing)認(ren)識上升到新(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)度(du),成為(wei)(wei)(wei)當前和(he)今后一個時期(qi)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)指導性(xing)文(wen)件,在(zai)(zai)推(tui)動(dong)(dong)(dong)鄉(xiang)村(cun)振(zhen)興中(zhong)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)揮重(zhong)(zhong)要引領作(zuo)用。從(cong)世(shi)界潮流看(kan),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)是(shi)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)必然選擇(ze)。我(wo)國(guo)(guo)充分借(jie)鑒上個世(shi)紀以來發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)達(da)國(guo)(guo)家(jia)和(he)部分發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)家(jia)在(zai)(zai)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)可持續(xu)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)經驗與教訓,推(tui)動(dong)(dong)(dong)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)可持續(xu)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)觀念從(cong)過去簡單注(zhu)重(zhong)(zhong)環保向生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)命共同體(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)度(du)轉(zhuan)(zhuan)變(bian),關注(zhu)資源(yuan)、安全(quan)、健康、產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)、環境多重(zhong)(zhong)目標(biao)協同實(shi)(shi)(shi)現(xian)(xian)。從(cong)科技(ji)進(jin)步看(kan),農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)是(shi)數(shu)字(zi)技(ji)術、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)技(ji)術發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)時代產(chan)(chan)物(wu)。隨著物(wu)聯(lian)網、大數(shu)據(ju)、區(qu)(qu)塊鏈等(deng)(deng)(deng)新(xin)(xin)一代信息(xi)技(ji)術和(he)新(xin)(xin)型育種、栽培技(ji)術的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)研(yan)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)應用,農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)技(ji)術正在(zai)(zai)由依靠增(zeng)加肥、藥(yao)、水、勞(lao)動(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)等(deng)(deng)(deng)實(shi)(shi)(shi)現(xian)(xian)增(zeng)產(chan)(chan)增(zeng)收(shou)向減少肥、藥(yao)、水、勞(lao)動(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)等(deng)(deng)(deng)實(shi)(shi)(shi)現(xian)(xian)增(zeng)產(chan)(chan)增(zeng)收(shou)轉(zhuan)(zhuan)變(bian)。這為(wei)(wei)(wei)不斷(duan)推(tui)動(dong)(dong)(dong)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)色發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)、保障國(guo)(guo)家(jia)食品安全(quan)、加快農(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)現(xian)(xian)代化開辟了(le)(le)新(xin)(xin)途徑(jing)。

用科學(xue)思維和方(fang)(fang)法(fa)謀(mou)劃農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,守(shou)底線、把(ba)(ba)全(quan)(quan)局(ju)、重創新。堅守(shou)糧食安(an)全(quan)(quan)底線、耕地數(shu)量與質量紅線和水(shui)資源紅線,從(cong)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)全(quan)(quan)局(ju)性(xing)(xing)、長期性(xing)(xing)、復雜性(xing)(xing)出(chu)發(fa),加強戰(zhan)略謀(mou)劃、強化風險應(ying)對、堅持(chi)久久為(wei)功,推動農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)從(cong)思想觀念到(dao)(dao)方(fang)(fang)式方(fang)(fang)法(fa)、從(cong)政(zheng)策舉措到(dao)(dao)工作安(an)排的(de)全(quan)(quan)面變革(ge),實(shi)現農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)可持(chi)續(xu)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。另一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,增(zeng)強系(xi)統(tong)思維,堅持(chi)統(tong)籌(chou)兼顧。農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)貫穿(chuan)于鄉村振興的(de)各(ge)個方(fang)(fang)面,是一(yi)項宏大系(xi)統(tong)工程。需要系(xi)統(tong)研究把(ba)(ba)握土(tu)、水(shui)、氣、種(zhong)、肥、藥、廢棄(qi)物(wu)和生物(wu)多樣性(xing)(xing)等農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)諸要素的(de)內(nei)在規律(lv),提高綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)全(quan)(quan)要素生產率;統(tong)籌(chou)兼顧、協調(diao)推進,重點處理好質和量的(de)關系(xi),以最小投入和環(huan)境代價實(shi)現最好產出(chu)和效益(yi);處理好政(zheng)府與市場的(de)關系(xi),充(chong)分調(diao)動各(ge)類市場主(zhu)體參與農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)色(se)(se)(se)發(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)積(ji)極(ji)性(xing)(xing)、主(zhu)動性(xing)(xing)、創造性(xing)(xing)。

遵循(xun)科學路徑推進農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。加(jia)強(qiang)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)理論(lun)研究,聚(ju)焦(jiao)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)基礎(chu)理論(lun),堅(jian)(jian)持(chi)(chi)理論(lun)與實(shi)踐(jian)相結合,持(chi)(chi)續深化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)理論(lun)研究、豐(feng)富理論(lun)內涵,破(po)除思想(xiang)觀念(nian)障礙。加(jia)快(kuai)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)技術研發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)應用,面對(dui)增加(jia)優(you)質(zhi)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)產品供給與立足資源(yuan)環(huan)(huan)境承載能(neng)力的(de)(de)要求,圍繞(rao)“農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)資源(yuan)環(huan)(huan)境保(bao)(bao)護(hu)、要素投入精準(zhun)環(huan)(huan)保(bao)(bao)、生(sheng)產技術集(ji)約高效、產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)模式(shi)生(sheng)態循(xun)環(huan)(huan)、質(zhi)量(liang)標(biao)準(zhun)規范完備”,按照系統、集(ji)成、智能(neng)的(de)(de)思路,破(po)解(jie)“卡(ka)脖子”技術難題,創新(xin)集(ji)成綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)技術,加(jia)快(kuai)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)機(ji)械裝(zhuang)備研發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)應用,推動農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)科技綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)轉型。優(you)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)政(zheng)策制(zhi)度(du)(du)環(huan)(huan)境,健全(quan)以綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)、生(sheng)態為導(dao)(dao)向的(de)(de)投入補(bu)貼制(zhi)度(du)(du),強(qiang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)糧食主(zhu)(zhu)產區利益補(bu)償(chang)、耕地保(bao)(bao)護(hu)補(bu)償(chang)、生(sheng)態補(bu)償(chang)、金融激(ji)勵等政(zheng)策支持(chi)(chi),注重(zhong)(zhong)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)揮(hui)好金融和(he)保(bao)(bao)險的(de)(de)作(zuo)用;完善綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)相關法律法規,構建(jian)標(biao)準(zhun)明確(que)、激(ji)勵有效、約束(shu)有力的(de)(de)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)制(zhi)度(du)(du)環(huan)(huan)境。加(jia)強(qiang)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)標(biao)準(zhun)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)、產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)、市(shi)場化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)、數(shu)字化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)建(jian)設,加(jia)快(kuai)建(jian)立農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)標(biao)準(zhun)體系,實(shi)施達(da)標(biao)提質(zhi)行(xing)動,引(yin)導(dao)(dao)經營(ying)主(zhu)(zhu)體推進農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)標(biao)準(zhun)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)生(sheng)產,強(qiang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)對(dui)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)產品質(zhi)量(liang)安全(quan)的(de)(de)全(quan)程監(jian)管;以綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)為導(dao)(dao)向,優(you)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)村一、二、三(san)產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),增加(jia)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)村生(sheng)態服(fu)務產品供給;注重(zhong)(zhong)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)揮(hui)市(shi)場作(zuo)用,激(ji)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)各類(lei)主(zhu)(zhu)體內生(sheng)動力,引(yin)導(dao)(dao)農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)走良(liang)性可持(chi)(chi)續之路;注重(zhong)(zhong)大數(shu)據建(jian)設,推動農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)產數(shu)字化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)改造,為農(nong)(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)生(sheng)產生(sheng)活方(fang)式(shi)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)(se)(se)(se)轉型奠定堅(jian)(jian)實(shi)基礎(chu)。